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Construction of various tunnels
 
     The tunnels through mountains or laid under the bottom of the sea, are mainly for road and rail, for installation of water supply, sewage pipes and power lines and communication. It should be noted that the idea is not new tunnels. They exist for thousands of years - yet the Roman engineers created the world's longest tunnel system in the ancient world. Today the tunnels built with the help of modern technology. First excavated, using special tools and equipment. If the ground is unstable nothing left to do, both during the excavation works to strengthen the ceiling and walls of the tunnel. This is usually used tunneling shield, then there is a particular cylinder that is pushed in front of the equipment to provide a secure base for the roof of the object. When the tunnel is paving the solid rock porodk, engineers use special drilling machines. After the start of tunnel engineers to the last stage of construction: for example, they set the lighting and paving the railroad tracks. If the builders are working under water, pre-izgotavlennye tunnel sections are usually delivered to the desired location on the water, flooded, and then proisoedinyayut to other sections.